At the height of the Famine the English were shipping as many Irish as they could to Australia or Canada, with most going to Canada. Because they were considered social refuse and traveling at government expense, the Famine Irish often came over in conditions worse than those experienced by blacks transported to America as slaves; blacks, at least, were worth money. The destitute Irish were a financial burden to the English as long as they were on their land. Their objective was to be rid of them; it didn’t really matter if they arrived in Canada dead or alive. The 6,000 Irish buried on Grosse Ile near Quebec City is testament to that.

While many Irish-American families are descendants of Famine survivors, we aren’t. It is indisputable that Patrick and Nora Costelloe McInerny left Ireland with their children Mary, Bridget, and Austin before the complete failure of the potato crop in 1846-47.  While there is no solid evidence to pinpoint exactly when they left Ireland or where they landed in Canada, Church records definitely establish Patrick and Nora were in Lanark County, Ontario, in 1845.

Whether they were aboard the Governor when it left in April 1845 or another ship that year or possibly a year earlier, we can assume Patrick and Nora took the standard route from County Clare to Canada, leaving Limerick and landing at Montreal. This general pattern of emigration is documented in the Hawke Papers, the very detailed records compiled by A.J. Hawke, British immigration agent in Canada West, which is what Ontario was called at the time.  While I found no specific mention of Patrick in these papers, I did find the arrival of another McInerny noted about a year after his arrival, a man who would be Patrick’s neighbor for nearly two decades.

From Montreal, Patrick, Nora, Mary, Bridget, and Austin most likely went up the St. Lawrence to Kingston, Ontario, then up the Rideau Canal to Smith Falls. From there, they traveled west up the less navigable Tay River Canal to the town of Perth in Lanark County. The surveyor John Taggart, who worked on developing the canals and waterways of Ontario, wrote down his general impressions of this area.

“The area around Perth is tolerably fertile, but the situation of the town is unhealthy from its surrounding swamps. It is about 30 feet above Rideau Lake, and nearly 400 feet above Montreal…”

—Three Years in Canada, John McTaggart, 1829

Patrick and Nora settled down in the countryside outside of Perth. They lived several miles from town but, as noted in the last chapter, Patrick was a carpenter so he probably spent most of his time working in Perth and the surrounding villages. Their first child born in North America, Margaret, was baptized at St. John the Baptist Catholic Church in Perth in October 1845[1]. Patrick and Nora would stay in the Perth area for the next 20 years and all of their children younger than Austin would be born and baptized there.

I noted earlier how I found out that the family had come to Minnesota from Perth, Ontario. The next phase, finding any evidence of them in Canadian records, was more time consuming. Using the resources of the Church of Latter Day Saints, I first looked for Patrick and Nora in the 1851 Ontario Census for Lanark County, Ontario.  I spent a day going through the microfiche reels without finding a single McInerny in the entire county.  Part of the difficulty was the handwriting. Some entries were examples of beautiful penmanship, others almost indecipherable. I finally found them in the reels for the 1861 Ontario census, but it was a complicated and tedious process getting access to this information in the late 1990s.  I had to send a request to Salt Lake City then go to the local Mormon community center to view the microfiche. It all got much easier as more and more genealogical data became available on the Internet. Eventually I got hold of a printed version of the 1851 Census through the Ontario Genealogical Society. That allowed me to spend more time going through the data for the whole county. I located Patrick and Nora, not in Bathurst Township where they was living in 1861 and where I had spent most of my time looking for them, but just over the line in the adjoining township of North Burgess. Either the 1851 census taker, or the person who created the printed version of it, butchered the spelling of the name, so I found them almost by accident; he’s recorded as Patrick McNutury, age 40, and his family is living on Con 10, Lot 08P 100. This is census in which Patrick’s occupation is noted as carpenter and this is the spot where they were living when three of their children—Margaret 1845, James 1847, and Michael, 1849[2]—were baptized at St. John the Baptist.[3]

With access to the Ontario Census records—and the aid of several members of the Lanark County Historical Society—I was able to uncover a couple of additional facts about the area Patrick and Nora immigrated to: first, they were not the only or even the first McInernys there; second, there were also Costellos, Mangans (or Manions), Mescalls, Enrights, Kehoes, and Kanes[4], the same family names found in the tithe books for Kilfearagh Parish, now living in Lanark County, Ontario.

I also purchased a printed copy of the 1861 Ontario Census and discovered three families and several individual McInernys living in Lanark County at that time, among them Patrick and Honora (Nora) McInerney (sic) now living on property they own: Lot 01, Con 01, Bathurst Township. While the microfiche of the 1861 Census was harder to access and at times difficult to decipher, it did reveal a few more details about Patrick and Nora’s life than the hard copy, like the description of their dwelling; a one-and-a-half story log home.[5] The McInerny children listed are Bridget, Mary, Austin, Margaret, James, Michael, Thomas, and Anora. Only three of the eight children had attended school in the last year—Margaret, James and Michael. There is a second Michael McInerny, 17,[6] living in the home. For some reason, he’s listed as “servant,” but so are Patrick’s children Bridget and Patrick so I don’t know what to make of that. Maybe that means that is their occupation outside the home or maybe it just means they are not in school and work within the household.

The hard copy of this census also lists four other young, single McInerneys residing in the township.[7] There seems to be too many McInernys in the area for it to be purely coincidental so I assume they are all related. I think it’s a reasonable assumption: if I had access to the 2000 US Census, I’m confident I could find a family connection between the majority of the McInernys living in Hennepin County and me. Considering how difficult, expensive, and life-threatening travel was, how much more probable is it that all these McInernys living in a rural township in Ontario 150 years ago are related?

In 1861 Patrick gives his occupation as farmer[8] and his age as 52, making him 12 years older than he was 10 years earlier, yet according to his death certificate he was actually 57 at the time.[9] This is just one of many times when I found the family giving their ages incorrectly to census takers. Everyone knows the year they were born, so this had to be a conscious act but I can’t figure out why they found it necessary to do it; possibly it grew out of a general distrust of English authority. And Patrick’s isn’t the only incorrect age given. Austin is listed as 16 when according to his baptismal record he was actually 18. His younger brother James is listed as 12, which would mean he was born in 1849, yet there is a record of his baptism in 1847[10]. And this goes on for their entire lives.

Why the subterfuge over their age? There had to be a reason other than ignorance or vanity. And the deception is clearly intentional because I found an exception that proves the rule. When Austin married Ellen Connell in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1866 he gives his age as 22; he was actually 23. This is the closest to the truth I could find in any document during his entire life in North America, including his death certificate. Suddenly, and only for a while, Austin knows his real age, more or less. I assume he told the truth on that occasion because when he got married he was dealing with the Catholic Church as well as civil authorities.

Although I have not visited the site, both census and land records pinpoint the location of Patrick and Nora McInerny homestead in Canada from 1852 until 1865. Lanark County was divided into rectangular sections; one axis called “Lot” and the other axis, “Concession;” shortened to “Con” on most documents. Each of these sections comprised approximately 100 acres. Patrick McInerny bought Lot 1, Con 1, and moved from North Burgess Township to Bathurst Township in 1852[11]. Lot 1, Con 1 forms the southwest corner of the township. I paid a member of the Lanark Genealogical Society to go out there in 2002 to see if he could find any remnants of their log home, but the land was so overgrown he couldn’t get to it from the road. In fact, he said it was so heavily wooded he found it hard to believe it could ever have been viable farmland. One can only image how remote and rugged it was in 1852, yet we have a very detailed account in the 1861 Census of how Patrick used his land nine years later. It had an addendum called the Agricultural Survey and Patrick was included in it.

Patrick McInerney, Concession 1/Lot 1, Bathurst Township

Total acres held 100
Under cultivation 20
Under crops 1860 12
Under pasture 1860 8
Wood or wild 50
Cash value of farm $200
Cash value of equipment $20
Fall wheat, acres/bushels
Spring wheat, acres/bushels 3/40
Barley, acres/bushels
Rye, acres/bushels
Peas, acres/bushels 2/30
Oats, acres/bushels 2/50
Buckwheat, acres/bushels
Indian corn, acres/bushels
Potatoes, acres/bushels 3/300
Carrots, bushels
Beans, bushels
Hops, pounds
Hay, pounds 3 tons

It’s interesting to note that half his property was still woods and that he farmed what was cleared just like he had in Ireland, using three acres to grow 300 bushels of potatoes.

The Other McInerny Families of Lanark County

The first McInerny to appear in any of the historical records for Lanark County was a Thomas McInerny living in Lot 6, Con 1 in 1832. We only know about him because he is mentioned in a priest’s diary. When I looked into the land records I found this property was bought by John Rasp in 1820 and sold to John Strong in 1848, then to Thomas Strong in 1856, so Thomas McInerny was either employed by Rasp or rented the land from him. This land is not very far from the property Patrick would buy in 1852, suggesting he could have been initially drawn to Perth after hearing about it from a family member who emigrated earlier, possibly this Thomas McInerny.

The 1861 Ontario Census lists another family of McInernys living in Bathurst Township just a mile or so from Patrick and Nora. The father’s name is also Patrick, the mother, Johanna. Both were born in Ireland. They were, however, married in Canada and, judging by the date of their marriage, living in Lanark County before Patrick and Nora arrived. The interesting thing about Patrick and Johanna is that they could be related to each other as well as Patrick. According to the marriage records at St. John the Baptist Catholic Church, Patrick McInerny (sic) and Johanna Smith were married on April 28, 1844[13]. His parents were recorded as James McInerny (sic) and Mary Heatherman, hers as Thomas Smith and Mary McInerny (sic). There were several James McInernys back in Corbally, including the headmaster of the local hedge school; that suggests a possible link between the two Patrick McInernys of Lanark County. The Patrick married to Johanna could have been the first family member to come over, paving the way for both the other Patrick and others. It seems likely they were related but it’s not possible to state it with absolute certainty; family connection, however, is the only reasonable explanation I can come up with for why so many McInernys were all living so near to one another in this sparsely populated part of Ontario.[14]

Besides census and land records, there is another record of Patrick and Nora’s homestead: the 1863 Walling Map of Lanark County. On it you can clearly see Patrick and Nora’s land exactly where the 1861 census places them —along with that of two other McInerny families: Patrick and Nora and their children, Mary, Bridget, Austin, Margaret, James, Michael, Thomas, and Honora living in Bathurst Township, Con 01, Lot 01; Patrick and Johanna and their children, Mary, Catherine, Ellen, Thomas, Martin, Bridget, Margaret, and Johanna living in Bathurst Township, Con 03, Lot 08; and Simon and Mary and their children, Bridget, John, Margaret, Michael, Austin, Mary, and Laughlin[15] living in North Burgess Township, Con 10, Lot 19P.[16]

The last name is spelled differently for all three families on the Walling Map. Patrick and Nora’s property is titled “T. McInnary,” Patrick and Johanna’s, “P. McNerney,” and Simon and Mary’s, “S. McNimmey.”

While I have been unable to find anything that links Patrick and Nora with Patrick and Johanna there are facts that link them with Simon and Mary McInerny. The connection begins with a small reference in the Hawke Papers, the only historic document that records the influx of Irish into Ontario (then called Canada West) in the 1840s:

List of destitute emigrants forwarded to Montreal by Government Emigration Office, Quebec, in June, July, and August of 1846.

Simon McInnerny

Total Party of 1 male, I female, 4 children and 1 “free.[17]

Forwarded to Montreal per Steamer “Queen” July 13; destination Perth; party consists of wife and other family members.

We know Patrick and Nora were in Canada at least a year before Simon’s arrival and the document above shows he came directly to the town they lived near. We know from the census records that both men were about the same age. And although he is listed among “destitute emigrants” when he arrives in Canada, Simon, like Patrick, left Ireland before the worst years of the famine and does well enough in his new country to buy property within a few years; in fact, before Patrick and Nora do. I found Simon and Mary in the 1851 Ontario Census listed as owning property in Burgess Township, about halfway from the property Patrick and Nora bought in 1852 and where they were living in 1851. The 1851 census lists him as “Simeon McInerary, farmer.”

Just a few weeks after Simon and Mary arrived in Perth one of their children died. The parish records for St. John the Baptist Catholic Church show that Mary, daughter of Simon McInerny (sic) and Mary Mangan, was buried on August 4, 1846. The witnesses were Patrick McInerny and John Mangan[18]. On March 20, 1848, the parish records show the baptism of Simon and Mary’s son Austin; not among the most common Irish names at the time, yet both Simon and Patrick give it to their sons.

I found another connection between Simon and Austin on a website called Paper of Record[19]. It contained digitized copies of old newspapers, including almost all the issues of the Perth Courier from 1845 to 1865. Each issue printed a list of unclaimed letters at the post office. Home mail delivery was rare at that time and, because letters came so infrequently, people wouldn’t stop by the post office every day looking for one. Instead, they’d check the paper to see if a letter for them had arrived. I found the following in those lists of unclaimed letters:
January 5, 1849

Patt. McInerny

Simon McInerny

June 15, 1849

Simon McInereny

Patrick McInerheny

July 6. 1849

Patrick McInerny

August 3, 1849

Patt. or Simon McInerney

October 19, 1849

Patrick McInearney

December 10, 1851

P. McInerny, James Costelloe

The last names are spelled exactly as they were printed in the newspaper. The most interesting entry in August 2, 1849, because it clearly indicates that one letter was addressed to both of them; again evidence they were close relatives. If those letters were from Ireland, one can only imagine the news they got during the worst years of the famine.

To see if I could establish a definite connection between Patrick and Simon, I wrote the Clare Heritage Centre and had them search their records for Simon McInerny and Mary Mangan[20]. As with Patrick and Nora, there is no marriage record, only baptismal records for their children.  These records show they, like Patrick and Nora, lived in the civil parish of Kilfearagh but in the townland of Kilfearagh, which is just south of the village of Kilkee. When his son John was baptized on December 4, 1837, his sponsors were Michael McInerney and Bridget Costelloe. There were not a great many Costelloes in the parish so it’s very likely Bridget is related to Patrick’s wife[21]. Simon doesn’t show up in the Tithe Applotment Book of 1828, probably because he was a minor at the time[22], but he did live within a few miles of Patrick.

In the 1840s there were many McInernys leaving Ireland for North America who are not related to Patrick, but the facts indicate Simon clearly was: both Patrick and Simon come from Kilfearagh Parish and live only a mile or so from each other, Simon’s oldest son’s godmother and Patrick’s wife have the same last name, Simon comes directly from Ireland to the same place in Canada where Patrick lives, Patrick witnesses the burial of Simon’s daughter soon after his arrival, a letter addressed to both of them comes to Perth, they both name sons Austin, and for at least 15 years they live within a mile of one another in rural Lanark County. I think it is fair to conclude that Patrick and Simon were cousins, at least.

So what was life like for these McInernys in mid-19th century Canada? I haven’t been able to explore every resource in Lanark County, but I do have a copy of 175 Years of Faith: The Story of the Parish of St. John the Baptist, Perth, 1823-1998.  While there are no specific references to either Patrick or Simon, it does give a flavor of the times. As in America, Irish Catholics were sometimes seen as a threat to the predominant WASP culture in Canada, however in Father John Hugh McDonagh, pastor of St. John the Baptist from 1838 to 1866[23], the Irish of Lanark County had a staunch spiritual leader, advocate, and defender.

In his early years in the parish, Father McDonagh served St. John the Baptist in Perth along with six “mission” churches in the county. He also visited “stations,” private homes where the faithful would gather for Mass, possibly even stopping by the McInernys on his journeys around the county. He was the only priest in the parish until 1863 and he oversaw the building of St. John the Baptist, the church Simon and both Patricks attended and where their children were baptized. It still stands today.[24]

The arrival of Irish Catholics into Lanark County, a territory first settled by Scots and English veterans of the British Army, was probably not welcomed by many; surely not by the members of the Orange Order in Perth, the same militant Protestant organization that would fan the flames of the Troubles in Northern Ireland in the 20th century. In July of 1848, the Bathurst Courier noted with “surprise and satisfaction” that the July 12[25] Orange Order march went off went off “peaceably.”  It went on to say, “…we feel somewhat gratified that the Orangemen on the present occasion have manifested a more forbearing spirit than on the last 12th.” It concluded by enjoining them to “…learn the true scriptural doctrine, and practice it too, of exercising Christian charity and forbearance, toward their Catholic neighbors.”[26] The article clearly references some kind of an incident in 1847, so there must have been ongoing tensions between Catholics and Protestants in the community.

Father McDonagh, aware of the proselytizing that took place in public schools, instructed his parishioners not to send their children to them and in 1855 created a Catholic school in Perth as an alternative to the Protestant-influenced public institution. Fifty-seven boys and 58 girls were in attendance when it opened; I don’t know if any of them were McInernys. He also started a Saint Patrick’s Society and a temperance group. In the future, I plan on going to Perth to see if any parish records from the period exist for the school or those social organizations.

Throughout the 1840s and 1850s Father McDonagh fought an on-going battle with the Protestant establishment of Lanark County. He also remained closely connected to Ireland, returning there twice—in 1842[27] and 1856—no easy journey at the time. He was a friend to Archbishop John MacHale of Tuam and Thomas D’Arcy McGee, the poet, publisher of the Toronto Mirror, and a member of the Young Ireland Movement in his youth who escaped arrest in 1848 by fleeing Ireland and going to the United States. A disaffected rebel, McGee became an ardent opponent of Irish independence movements that promoted violence, especially the secret society known as the Fenian Brotherhood, which had branches in both the United States and Canada at the time. McGee remained an ardent supporter of Irish Independence through non-violent means. In 1868, a member of the Fenian Brotherhood assassinated D’Arcy McGee in Ottawa.

Both Archbishop MacHale and D’Arcy McGee visited Father McDonagh in Perth, another indication that he was something more than the ordinary parish priest. Father McDonagh helped raise money for Archbishop MacHale’s efforts to build a Catholic university in Ireland and also to relieve the suffering of Famine victims, efforts that were recognized and praised in the local paper. I think it fair to assume Patrick and Nora McInerny contributed to both causes.

Never shy of taking a stand, Father McDonagh was a frequent contributor to the editorial page of the local paper, often to refute an anti-Catholic story or clearly state the Church’s position on a topic of the day.  He wrote editorials against the proselytizing of Irish Catholic servants in Protestant households, Britain’s response to the Famine, and land clearances in Ireland. All of these articles attest to his learning, passion, and skill as a writer.

One short article in 1853 mentions Father McDonagh and gives us some insight into his command over his flock and his ability to handle a tense situation.

“In all parts of Upper Canada the 12th of July passed off peaceably. The Orange Order Processions were not molested in a single instance.

In this connection, it is but justice to mention, that to the active and praiseworthy exertions of Rev. J. H. McDonagh, is to be ascribed the peace and quietness that prevailed in this town on the 12th inst. The Orangemen cannot claim the credit of having displayed any extraordinary peaceful disposition—in fact, we saw one of them carrying a rifle—and in the evening a few of them, failing to find a Catholic with whom to have a spat, endeavored to raise a bit of a row among themselves, but the presence of the Sheriff put a damper on their efforts.” Perth Courier, July 22, 1853

From the tone of the article it seems the Irish Catholics weren’t the only locals uncomfortable with the antics of the Orange Order. And while they may have tried to provoke the Irish on the anniversary of the Battle of the Boyne, the Orange Order certainly didn’t intimidate them. The following excerpt from the Perth Courier describes the 1856 St. Patrick’s Day celebration; an event Irish Catholics made sure was a bigger event than the July 12th marches. The new church referred to in this article is the soon-to-be completed St. John the Baptist. Perhaps Patrick McInerny helped build it; he undoubtedly was one of the participants in the big parade.

First in order, a procession was formed at the old church, at 10 o’clock, and preceded to the new church. The day was unfavorable, and the streets very muddy, which prevented many from attending…Marshals on foot accompanied, wearing on their breasts very handsome badges. In front marched the children of the Catholic School numbering about 100, next followed the Perth St. Patrick’s Brass Band, wearing beautiful badges presented them for the occasion, and in the rear from five to six hundred of the male portion of the congregation, each with a shamrock conspicuous in his coat or hat, the national emblem of the Irishman. The new church, which is capable of holding one thousand, was pretty well crowded, seats, aisles, and every available space was filled. A good sprinkling of our Protestant friends were observable…Grand High Mass was celebrated by the Very Rev. J. H. McDonagh, assisted by the Rev. Dr. Madden as Deacon, the Rev. Mr. Foley of Westport as subdeacon; the ceremony was grand and imposing such as Catholics only can appreciate. Dr. Madden preached the sermon of the day, a most excellent panegyric on the Patron Saint of Ireland…An appeal was made for the pulpit to the congregation to conduct themselves throughout the day with order and sobriety, as becoming Christians, Catholics, and Irishmen. This good and timely advice proved salutary in its effects, as not one solitary instance of improper conduct was observable during the day. After service the procession again formed, and marched back to the old church, where they gave three cheers for “Old Ireland,” three for “Queen Victoria,” three for the “Governor General,” three for the “Band,” and three for the “Very Rev. J. H. McDonagh”…many an Irish heart was gladdened on this occasion.”

While there is no way of knowing why they decided to leave, an international incident that occurred in 1861 may have given Patrick and Nora pause about spending the rest of their lives in Canada. That year two Confederate diplomats were forcibly removed from a British ship off the coast of Cuba. The Mason and Slidell Affair, as it was called, brought Great Britain and America to the brink of war. British troop levels were increased in Canada and a local militia was raised in Perth.[28] The threat of a military draft during this crisis may be the reason Patrick had for giving Austin’s age as 16 in the 1861 census; it might have been enough to keep him from being conscripted into the militia.

That crisis passed, but in the last year of the Civil War there were constant rumors of a Fenian invasion of Canada[29]. Lead by Irish veterans of the Union Army, the Fenians hoped to overrun Canada and then negotiate its return to Britain for the freedom of Ireland. In January of 1865, the Perth Courier reported 795 men had been drafted in Lanark County. Austin, no longer able to claim he was too young, may have been among them. Or maybe he left for America to avoid it. We do know he was out of Canada in 1866. When he left is not clear, although getting out of Lanark County was getting easier, thanks to new modes of transportation.

In 1859, the railroad reached Perth, giving Austin, his parents, and siblings an easier and faster way to get to Kingston or Toronto to catch a boat across the Great Lakes to America. Patrick and Nora probably traveled that route after selling their land in April 1865[30], just weeks after the end of the Civil War. Why they left after living in Canada for 20 years we don’t know. Maybe there was no work; maybe a relative had gone ahead and written them about better opportunities in the United States. Their neighbors Patrick and Johanna McInerny left around the same time for upstate New York[31]. Simon and Mary McInerny stayed in the area until 1870 when they too went to upstate New York where their children eventually changed the spelling of their name to McNerney.

The 1861 census is the last evidence I could find of the McInernys in Canada, with the exception of the sale of their property in 1865.[32] I searched every possible resource available on line and paid for several local searches through the Lanark County Genealogical Society with no results. The last thing I was able to find was a newspaper article that mentioned Simon McInerny’s son Austin—then living in Rochester, New York, and having changed his name to Augustin McNerney—attending the “Old Boys” reunion at the Perth High School in 1905[33]. Two of Patrick and Johanna McInerny’s sons, Thomas and Martin[34], also attended. They were both listed as living in Whitsboro, Oneida County, New York. We don’t know for certain if there was a family connection between Patrick and Nora and Patrick and Johanna, but there was with Simon and Mary and one has to wonder if they stayed in touch after 1865.  I made contact with one of Simon and Mary’s descendents, Judy Blake Frei of Philadelphia; there was no evidence of it in anything she’d uncovered about her McNerney ancestors.

Where did Patrick and Nora go when they left Canada? The only thing we know for sure is that their son Austin was in Louisville, Kentucky, in 1866. The rest of the family may have also gone there.  Patrick McInerny’s 1897 obituary says he came to America briefly (exactly where, it doesn’t say) in 1864 then returned to Canada until finally coming to Lake City, Minnesota, in 1877. But did he come there earlier and did he bring his family or travel alone? If he did, was he visiting relatives or checking out a location to move to? Or is the information in the obituary even credible? So far, I can’t find anything that verifies any of it, but I’m continuing to search through historical records in Wabasha County, where Lake City is located[35].

[1] Margaret’s sponsors were James Costello (probably Nora’s brother) and Catherine Green.
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[2] His son Austin is 8 in the 1851 Census, which is correct; in the 1861 one he’s 16.
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[3] Thomas was baptized in September 1852; records for Nora, circa 1860, and Lizzie, circa 1865, have not been found.
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[4] People with the names Keogh (Kehoe), Enright (Henright) and Kain (Kane) would be godparents to both Patrick and Simon McInernys children.
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[5] Ontario land records show they bought the property on February 25, 1852 from Hugh Ross for 10 pounds. That explains why they weren’t in the 1851 census for Bathurst Township.
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[6] This second Michael is found on the microfiche of the 1861 Census, but not the hard copy from the Ontario Genealogical Society.
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[7] These are Bridget, 18 (servant), John, no age given, (laborer), Michael, no age given, (servant), and Michael, 17 (laborer). The first three were born in Ireland, the last in Canada.
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[8] In all US Census records he is a carpenter.
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[9] Nora does even better: she’s 39 in 1851 but only 42 in 1861.
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[10] To confuse things more, James’ death notice and gravestone in the Lake City, Minnesota, say he was born in 1852.
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[11] There is no record of him owning the land he lived on in North Burgess Township.
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[12] This is a type of beet.
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[13] April 1844 is the earliest probably date for Patrick and Nora’s departure from Ireland.
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[14] An unusual frequency of McInernys also occurs when Patrick and Nora move to Lake City, Minnesota.
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[15] There is another child named Laughton listed, who came from Ireland with Simon. He is the same age as John and but probably not his brother; it seems unlikely Simon would name one son Laughton and another Laughlin.
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[16] Con 10 is the northern boundary of North Burgess Township and abuts Con 01, the southern boundary of Bathurst Township.
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[17] Children in these records were defined as those aged 3 to 12. “Free” usually means a child younger than 3.
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[18] Both Mary Mangan and Nora Costelloe had a male relative—most likely brothers— in the area; clearly many family members and friends were coming to this area in the 1840s.
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[19] It no longer exists.
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[20] In Church records in Canada her maiden name is noted as “Mangan” and ‘Manion.”
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[21] Nora McInerny’s death certificate says her mother’s name was “Bird,” which could be a nickname or misspelling of Bridget, so this woman might even be Nora’s mother.
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[22] According to the 1851 Ontario Census he was born in 1809, which would make him 19 in 1828.
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[23] This covers the entire time Patrick lived in Canada and most of Simon’s.
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[24] “It was an enormous challenge for both priest and people, taxing the authority, diplomatic skills, and charisma of the priest and the limited financial resources of the laity. In pioneer society, the building of a new church was a statement of faith par excellence and no surer proof of the people’s trust in their pastor. To his everlasting credit, Father McDonagh built not one but four churches during the twenty-eight years he resided in Perth: St. Mary’s in Almonte (1841); St. John the Baptist in Perth (1848); St Patrick’s in Ferguson Falls (1856); and St. Bridget’s in Stanleyville (1864).” Page 32, 175 Years of Faith: The Story of the Parish of St. John the Baptist, Perth, 1823-1998
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[25] On July 12, 1690, William of Orange defeated the Irish Catholic nobility at the Battle of the Boyne.
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[26] 175 Years of Faith: The Story of the Parish of St. John the Baptist, Perth, 1823-1998, page 36
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[27] Could Father McDonagh’s visit to Ireland in 1842 encouraged Patrick and Nora to immigrate to Canada? Since he was from County Mayo, he probably went there and not County Clare.
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[28] I found a reference to a list of 795 Lanark County men drafted into the militia in January 1859, but I haven’t been able to review that issue yet.
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[29] Fenian Raids were made into Canada in 1866. They failed miserably.
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[30] They made such a clean break from Canada that I don’t believe any of my older relatives were aware they ever lived there.
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[31] In the 1870 US Census they and their children are living in Oneida County, New York. Patrick and sons Martin and Thomas are working in a brickyard.
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[32] He gave Hugh Ross £10 for the land in 1852 and sold it to James Miller in 1865 for £234, a tidy profit indeed.
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[33] I don’t know if Austin Joseph attended high school with his younger cousins and, if he did, even knew about the reunion.
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[34] They were twins.
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[35] The statement in his obituary that Patrick didn’t return to Minnesota until 1877 is definitely wrong. He is in the 1870 US Census as a resident of Lake City. Maybe he really came in 1867, not 1877.
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